11858 Hurbanovo, 115 m above sea, 47.87 north, 18.20 east
is professional (SYNOP) station in south Slovakia, near border with Hungary, where border is created by big river Donau. Hurbanovo town is between town Nove Zamky (railoroad Berlin-Praha-Bratislava-Budapest) and Komarno by Donau and border with Hungary. There is very flat terrain between Bratislava and Komarno in south Slovakia, but there are some hills more east near Sturovo. Area around Komarno-Sturovo has warmest climate in Slovakia and Hurbanovo is SYNOP station with one of warmest region in Slovakia and one of warmest region in whole Central Europe area, where people usually understand Czech language (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland). There is not so big amount of precipitation in south Slovakia. Area in south Slovakia (lowland) is quite dry during Summer. But there are a lot of fields with irrigation from Donau.Town Hurbanovo:https://www.hurbanovo.sk/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurbanovohttps://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/HurbanovoOgimet SYNOP 2000-2019 Hurbanovo 11858 All data for download (CSV-XLS files and PNG graphs - minimum size PNG compression 9, 8-bit colors):
Similar project - Praha Libus 11520 Ogimet SYNOP 2000-2017:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2334.0http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2333.0Big analysis of data from station in center of Czech capital city Prague - station Praha Klementinum 1775-2019:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2329.0Praha Libus 11520 - Analysis of sounding (aerological) data:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2330.0http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2331.0http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2338.0GSOD - Tutiempo 1973-2017 - big analysis of few selected stations from various climate regions in world:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2328.0Ogimet SYNOP (Weather Ranking) - Extrems in Czech Republic and other parts of Europe and World - Big analysis:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2332.0Climate changes and trends trough bigger areas maps and graphs:http://meteomodel.pl/forum2/index.php?topic=2339.0Analysis of extremes in Czech Republic (written in Czech):https://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/tema-10-5489-Analyza_rocnich_Tmax_Tmin_a_Amplitud_v_CR_a_v_Praze_1998_2019_resp_1986_2019.htmlhttps://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/tema-10-4816-Maxima_v_CR_v_letech_1998-2017_a_horke_vlny_1961-2017.htmlhttps://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/tema-10-3958-Tropicke_dny_Praha_Libus_od_roku_2000.htmlhttps://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/tema-10-4885-Rekordni_prazdniny_a_vlny_veder_v_roce_2015.htmlhttps://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/tema-10-4809-Srpen_1807_2015_a_dalsi_extremne_horka_leta.html
Climate classification for Hurbanovo is Koppen classification Cfb - Marine west coast - it means
Average temperature normal no more than +22 °C for all months (This is not true anymore, but it was in normals 1961-1990 and 1971-2000), Average temperature normal Tavg of coldest months is not less than -3 °C (Limit for USA is 0 °C), yearly precipitation 500-5000 mm (Hurbanovo is close to low precipitation limit), about 150 days per year with precipitation (0.1 mm per day is enough ?), precipitation often from fronts, no dry season during year (however, Summer in Hurbanovo is relative dry during last years, not so many thunderstorms occur during Summer in south Slovakia lowland).
Average yearly temperature normal in Hurbanovo from period 1961-1990 is +10.0 °C (coldest January -1.5 °C and warmest July +20.2 °C), but it is significantly more last years, just look here:https://diskuse.in-pocasi.cz/image_uploads/04_2020/518210-10964.png
Yearly average temperature during years 2000-2019 was always higher than normal Tavg 1961-1990 (Coldest year 2005 Tavg +10.32 °C, 2010 Tavg +10.33 °C ..... 2018 Tavg +12.31 °C, Warmest year 2019 Tavg +12.39 °C, Tavg at Ogimet SYNOP is calculated from 24 termin observations per day - observations are once a hour (or it can be earlier from 8 termin observations per day - once a 3 hours). Average yearly precipitation
amount during period 1961-1990 is 521.7 mm, lowest average precipitation 26.6 mm in March, highest average precipitation 60.8 mm in June, 82 days per year with precipitation 1.0 mm and more. Average sunshine duration
is 1871 hours per year (during period 1961-1990 - with old manual instrument for sunshine duration records).
But there is highest average sunshine duration in Slovakia is in the middle of Donau lowland
, data from the web shmu.sk (Slovakian meteorological institute) - Hurbanovo average sunshine duration 2190 hours per year (from which period ?), maximum astronomical possibility of Sunshine duration should be 4447 hours per year (teoretical with total clear sky all year) - it means average sunshine duration in Hurbanovo is 49.25 % of astronomical possibility of sunshine duration. Some places inside Donau lowland in Slovakia can have average yearly precipitation normal less than 500 mm (Galanta 483 mm by shmu.sk, from which period ?). Average yearly temperature is around +11 °C (some years more) during last years in Donau Lowland, Slovakia.Slovakian meteorological institute - extremes in Slovakia:http://www.shmu.sk/sk/?page=1384
Wikipedia shows lowest minimum temperature record in Hurbanovo -23.0 °C (but only during period 1961-1990 and during period 1961-2019).
Value is from GCOS - WMO normals. The same value (Tmin -23.0 °C) is in GSOD dataset for day 13.01.1987. However lowest recorded Tmin in Hurbanovo for complete period 1871-2019 is 11.02.1929 -35.0 °C.
Probably, 13.01.1987 was last Arctic day in 11858 Hurbanovo
(Arctic day means daily Tmax no more than -10.0 °C)[/b] (by Ogimet GSOD 13.01.1987 Tmax in Hurbanovo -13.1 °C and 12.01.1987 Tmax -14.8 °C - 12.01.1987 is probably last day with Arctic day in entire country - current Czech republic area, at every station, Txx from Czech Republic area no more than -10.0 °C (Last Arctic day for entire country - Czech Republic, was last time 12th or 13th January 1987, this is still unclear, which day was the last. 13.01.1987 can be with Txx from current Czech Republic area (entire country) no more than -10.0 °C, it was probably at least 12.01.1987 (all stations in current Czech republic area Tmax no more than -10.0 °C), but it is not possible to proove it yet). Lysa hora Tmax 12.01.1987 by CHMI (Czech hydro-meteorological institute) -27.4 °C and by GSOD Tmax Lysa hora 12.01.1987 -27.0 °C is lowest Tmax (Txn) in Czech republic ever recorded (But by GSOD Praded 09.02.1956 Tmax -27.8 °C).
However entire country Arctic day in Slovakia might be last time 13.01.1987 (it is relative unsure), it was definitely not 12.01.1987, because Tmax at high altitude (Tatra mountains) was above -10 °C - 12.01.1987 Tmax Chopok -9.2 °C and another station Lucenec Tmax -8.7 °C by GSOD). Due to information from Slovakia found that 13.01.1987 Tmax in entire Slovakia - Txx 13.01.1987 Zikava -10.5 °C (Zlate Moravce district, Nitra district). So 13.01.1987 was probably Arctic day in Hurbanovo and probably last Arctic day in entire Slovakia (all stations in current Slovakian area) and maybe last Arctic day in entire current Czech Republic area or even last Arctic day in entire Czecho-Slovakia, this is still unsure (Czech and Slovakia splitted 01.01.1993).
By GSOD Tmin 29.12.1996 Hurbanovo -21.4 °C and lowest Tmax for year 1996 - 27.12.1996 Hurbanovo Tmax -8.6 °C, there is no Arctic day in Hurbanovo during year 1996. By GSOD - Arctic days in Hurbanovo were during one of biggest arctic outbreak since 1956 - 05-09.01.1985 (5 Arctic days continuously, but only two days with Tmax significantly bellow -10 °C), 08.01.1985 Tmax -14.4 °C, Tmin -22.3 °C, Tavg -19.5 °C.Ogimet GSOD:http://ogimet.com/gsodc.phtml.enHistorical Arctic outbreaks in 11858 Hurbanovo Ogimet GSOD (in year 1985, 1987, 1996):http://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsodres?lang=en&mode=0&ind=11858&ord=DIR&ano=1985&mes=01&day=31&ndays=31http://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsodres?lang=en&mode=0&ind=11858&ord=DIR&ano=1987&mes=01&day=31&ndays=31http://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsodres?lang=en&mode=0&ind=11858&ord=DIR&ano=1996&mes=12&day=31&ndays=31Koppen classification Cfb - Marine west coast:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanic_climate#Marine_west_coast_(Cfb)Climate 11858 Hurbanovo from period 1961-1990:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurbanovo#Climateftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/TABLES/REG_VI/S1/11858.TXTHurbanovo 20.07.2007 Tmax +40.3 °C
- this is highest temperature ever recorded for entire Slovakia (current Slovakian area). There was significant heat wave during July 2007 in Czech republic, Slovakia, Hungary, heat wave was longer in south-east Czech than in Prague. Previous record high for Slovakia is Komarno +39.8 °C from year 1950. There was 61 or 62 tropical days (daily Tmax +30.0 °C and more) in Hurbanovo during year 2003, different values are from different sources (61 days from ECAD with checked data, 62 days from SYNOP and GSOD operative data).Characteristics of Hurbanovo 11858 Ogimet SYNOP 2000-2019:
Ogimet SYNOP data perform for Hurbanovo during year 2003 115 Summer days with Tmax at least +25.0 °C (117 Summer days by ECAD in year 2003) and during year 2018 131 Summer days in Hurbanovo (by Ogimet SYNOP) and 183 days with Tmax at least +20.0 °C in Hurbanovo during year 2018 (by Ogimet SYNOP), this is reaching limit more than 50 % of days during year (183 days is exact limit). There was not Arctic day (Tmax no more than -10.0 °C) during period of aviable data Ogimet SYNOP (from 28.09.1999 to today 28.05.2020), lowest daily Tmax - Tnx - from this period is -9.6 °C from date 07.01.2017. There was only one day with Tmin bellow -20 °C in Hurbanovo during period 2000-2019 - 12.01.2003 Tmin -21.5 °C. Highest daily Tmin (24-hours Tmin, 23-23 UTC) in Hurbanovo during period 2000-2019 - Tnx - occurred 29.07.2013 Tmin +24.8 °C.Highest daily precipitation amount
(Ogimet SYNOP 2000-2019) is 17.08.2015 72 mm (day before 2 mm, next day 34 mm and day after 1.1 mm, it means 109 mm in 4 days 16-19.08.2015. This big ammont of precipitation came after one of most significant heat wave in August 2015, there was many days with Tmax above +35 °C in Hurbanovo during August 2015). Highest yearly precipitation amount is 983 mm from year 2010, lowest yearly precipitation amount is 332 mm from year 2003 (There was 61 or 62 Tropical days and 115-117 Summer days in Hurbanovo during year 2003).Longest duration of sunshine
was 2540 hours during year 2018, data shows only 527.5 sunshine hours during year 2008, but it is not real value, it is because there are many days with missing sunshine data.Snow height
sum day by day (2000-2019) is highest in year 2005 - 374 cm, lowest in year 2008, only 8 cm, and only 9 cm in year 2007 and 9 cm in year 2014. Highest (from morning termin ?) snow depth is 38 cm from date 31.12.2005. There was a lot of snow at end of December 2005 in east of Czech Republic and there are places in Czech Republic with snow cover during entire Winter 2005-2006. But snow melted quite fast in Hurbanovo.Highest yearly average annual temperature in entire Slovakia
is from Ziharec village +13.1 °C from year 2019, it was little bit more than in year 2018 (+13.0 °C or +13.1 °C). There was 138-140 Summer days (with Tmax +25.0 °C and more) in Ziharec (it is not SYNOP station) during year 2018. However station Ziharec have changed certain location few years back and it shows a bit higher average temperatures than stations around. Data from Ziharec are not homogenous.Historical weather extremes in Slovakia (in Slovak):http://www.shmu.sk/sk/?page=1384Trend during last 20-30 years is quite clear.
Yearly temperature average and yearly temperature maximum, amount of Tropical days (Tmax at least +30.0 °C) and Summer days (Tmax at least +25.0 °C) is increasing (not only) by linear trend in stations Praha Klementinum, Praha Libus, Hurbanovo and (all ?) other places in Central Europe. Linear trend is quite clear. However, Yearly highest Tmax - Txx - in Hurbanovo has decreasing linear trend 2000-2019. Decreasing trend is only for highest yearly Tmax - Txx - and not statistically significant. But it is strange anyway.Daily average values
(not only for temperature) are calculated from 24 observations during day (once a hour). Some old data can have observations only once a 3 hours resp. 8 times per day (00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 UTC). There is nobody at station, only automatic observation during night (21-05 UTC, or 22-06 middle-European time). Night observation in Hurbanovo (21-05 UTC) are automatic only for whole period 2000-2019. This affects number of observed thunderstorms, recorded weather phenomenas, cloud cover, visibility (for long distances).Daily Tmax and Tmin
for period 23-23 UTC are taken from SYNOP reports 18-18 (Report Tmax and Tmin once a 12 hours - 18-06 UTC and 06-18 UTC) in Scandinavia. It means that Tmax a Tmin for period 23-23 UTC are taken from 18-18 UTC including yesterday 18-23 UTC plus hourly observations 18-23 UTC today. It can affect values Tmax and Tmin and amount of Ice days (Tmax bellow 0 °C), Frost days (Tmin bellow 0 °C), Arctic days (Tmax no more than -10.0 °C) especially in Winter. But situation with Tmax and Tmin reporting is better in Czech Republic and Slovakia and values are more realistic for interval 23-23 UTC. Czech and Slovak hydro-meteorological institute has termin observations once a hour at professional (SYNOP) stations, but three times a day - 07, 14, 21 mean Solar time at basic stations. Tmax is 21-21, Tmin 21-21, night Tmin 21-07, precipitation 07-07 mean solar time. Mean Solar time changes by 4 minutes per degree of geographic longitude (one hour per 15 degrees).Visibility
- maximum value is 75 km in SYNOP reports (no higher value can be inserted to SYNOP code). It means that maximum value can be 75 km (daily average visibility or visibility from one termin). That's why yearly maximum of visibility (highest daily average) is often 75 km. It is question, how far is most distant landscape point, that you can see from Hurbanovo (in case of totally clean air). There are only automatic observations during night time 21-05 UTC. Automat can detect only low visibility (maximum few kilometers).Highest wind gusts
- If maximum gust is less than 10 m/s (36 km/h) or 15 m/s (54 km/h), these values are not taken and wind gust value is empty. There are often errors with extreme high wind gusts, that are totally not real. Wind gusts more than 30 m/s (108 km/h) are very rare and wind gusts more than 40 m/s (126 km/h) are almost not possible (except specific thunderstorm event or extreme wind storm in Winter, however it can be once a few decades).Sunshine duration
- It is amount of time, when Sun is shining (on the sky and not behind clouds). Sunshine data are very often with missing values during years 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. That's why Sunshine duration is unrealistic low in these years. Average Sunshine duration in Hurbanovo is more than 2000 hours per year.Cloud cover
- how big part of sky is covered by clouds in observation termin. Value is from 0 (clear sky) to 8 (overcast). However, there are only automatic observations during night time 21-05 UTC. It affect average daily cloud cover value (automat can not detect cloud cover).Data source - Ogimet SYNOP reports daily summaries 23-23 UTC
or 00-24 central European time (SEC). Mean solar time in Hurbanovo is 12.8 minutes before central European time (SEC) and 72.8 minutes before UTC time. ID number for Hurbanovo is 11858.Ogimet SYNOP data:http://ogimet.com/gsynres.phtml.enData are not always perfect.
There is automatic observation only during night 21-05 UTC. Automat can not detect cloud cover, visibility more than few kilometers and occurrence of meteorological phenomena like rain, snow, grubel, freezing rain, frozen rain, hail, dew, rainbow, fog, thunder, lighting etc. (only detection of some phenomena are possible with automat). There are lot of missing data of Sunshine duration in some years. It affect yearly sum of sunshine duration. And there are lot of unrealistic error values for highest wind gust.Test for temperature data quality - how many values are missing.
Daily temperature amplitude is calculated Tmax-Tmin. If one of these values (Tmax or Tmin or both) is missing, then temperature amplitude is not calculated and value of daily amplitude is 0.0 °C. Otherwise daily temperature amplitude is always more than 0.1 °C. Amount of days with temperature amplitude 0.0 °C means, how many days are with missing value of Tmax or Tmin of both. Amount of days with temperature amplitude 0.1 °C and more means, how many days are with both values (daily Tmax and Tmin). There are only few days per year (if any) with missing value Tmax or Tmin or both. But stations from some countries in world has a lot of days with missing value of Tmax, Tmin or both.This test is only for temperature data quality, and it does not show quality of other data types.Graphs - Yearly average values (from daily average values except Tmax, Tmin, Wind gust) and yearly sums.