It is quite difficlut to find right values, because many sources has different values and station sets. What is data source of this extremes ?
It seems to be two types of extremes on many web sites. First - older data from very hard winters in the past. Winters many years ago were much harder, but there was not so many stations in this time. Hardest winter in 20th century was 1929, and very hard winter in west and central Europe was 1956 too, but much milder that 1929.
Frost hollows can reach very low temperature even in mild winter, and reach records from hard winters (1929, 1940, 1942, 1956), when not so many stations were running in this time.
I use a lot two very good sources for temperature records:
And for daily records since 28.09.1999:
About frost hollows in Europe (In Czech) - Czech Amateur Meteorological Society:
Second source is from recent not so hard winters, but there are many stations running nowdays. Some stations are it frost hollows, specific places with extreme minimum temperatures, shallow valleys in mountains. These places can record colder temperature in mild winter than few stations during hard winters many years ago.
It seems to be that in map - countries in central Europe has minimum from recent mild winters, but from frost hollows. There were no stations in frost hollows in 1929 (or another hard, but not so hard winters, 1956, 1940, 1942, 1979 etc) or data are not aviable. Otherwise all countries with Alps has records bellow -50 °C.North Italy
with high mountains, there are stations in many frost hollows (data are only for last few year):
-49.6 °C Doline de Busa di Fradusta (2607 m) 10.02.2013 (46.25 north)
-48.7 °C Doline de Busa Riviera (2634 m) 27.02.2018
-48.3 °C Doline de Busa di Fradusta (2607 m) 27.12.2010
-47.0 °C Doline de Busa di Manna (2546 m) 18.12.2009
-45.8 °C Doline de Busa di Manna (2546 m) 17.12.2009
-45.5 °C Sponde Alte (2393 m) 18.12.2009
-43.8 °C Doline de Busa di Manna (2546 m) 09.01.2009
-43.6 °C Doline de Busa di Manna (2546 m) 16.12.2009https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fradusta
There was quite big cold blast in central Europe in December 2009, with Tmax bellow -10 at many places. But cold blasts at february 2012 or January 2006 was stronger. Cold blast during January 2018 was stronger at east.
It seems to be that Italy has record for Europe without Russia (but Svalbard included) since 2000
. There is unofficial record for whole Europe (except Russia): from north Norway, Finmark region - 17.02.2011 Garggoluoppal -49.9 °C. This record was found at geoclimat.org. Garggoluoppal is not at Norwegian meteorologocal site yr.no, lowest temperature in Norway in year 2011 by yr.no is Coavddatmohkki 17.12.2011 -42.5 °C. Garggoluoppal is not at Ogimet extremes, based on SYNOP. Garggoluoppal is small village in small shallow valley, near Karasjok in North Norway, by the map. Coavddatmohkki is small village by Karasjohka river between Karasjok and Garggoluoppal. At the same day - records by Ogimet SYNOP 17.02.2011 23 UTC in Nordic coundtries: Cuovddatmohkki (Norway) -42.1 °C, Karesuando A (Sweden) -40.8 °C, Sodankyla (Finland) -39.6 °C, one of coldest episode since 2000, but still not enough for record. At Norwegian meteorologocal site yr.no, there is record for Norway since 2000: 04.02.2001 23 UTC Drevsjo (inside mountains, 61.88 north) -43.9 °C (By ogimet.com 04.02.2001 23 UTC Drevsjo (Norway) -43.5 °C, second coldest is Roros (Norway) -37.0 °C, Tynset is in valley, not so far from Drevsjo, wth Tmax +9.8 the same day, it can not be true for Tynset, by Ogimet - at the same day Tmin in Sweden and Finland - Vilhelmina (Sweden) -35.9 °C and Sodankyla (Finland) -30.4 °C, quite cold, not really extreme).By every case of lowest temperature in Norway - by yr.no, there are extremes from Ogimet SYNOP for the same day. But it do not need to be coldest day in Sweden, Finland. And yr.no shows lowest one temperature for one year. It could be another cold episode in Scandinavia, which is not included.
Records in Norway by yr.no:https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/rekorder.htmlhttps://www.yr.no/place/Norway/rekorder.html?visaar=1Germany
Funtensee 1601 m above sea, 47.49 north:
2000: 25.01.2000 Funtensee -45.8 °C
2001: 24.12.2001 Funtensee -45.9 °C
2002: Funtensee -45.8 °C
There is record 15.02.1929 from Funtensee -52.4 °C, but it is dubious, if instrumets were properly. But wintr 1929 was extreme with temperature bellow -40 °C at many places in central Europe, it can be bellow -50 °C in frost hollows easily this winter.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funtenseehttps://www.nationalpark-berchtesgaden.bayern.de/www.schlunghorn.de/funtensee/temperatur.htm
Glattalp 1850 m, La Brevine 1048m
Glattalp (1852 m) 07.02.1991 -52.5 °C
La Brévine (1048 m) 12.01.1987 -41.8 °C
And recent record Glattalp 27.02.2018 -37.7 °Chttps://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glattalphttps://www.mscgerber.com/glattalp/https://www.ebs-strom.ch/glattalp/temperaturen.htmRussia (European part)
Station network density in Russia is very bad, even with normal stations, especially with frost hollows.
Record for whole Europe including part of Russia is from very cold Arctic blast around new year eve 1978-1979. It was very warm in Europe and suddelny with new year temperature in central Europe drops from +10 °C to -20 °C (or something like this). It was extreme cold air from Arctic in European Russia, Wind and Temerature at 850 hPa bellow -40 °C, even daily maximum temperature around Ural Bellow -40 °C or -45 °C. Similar event in European Russia by Ural was in winter 2010. Record from february 2010 in Russia - suddenly cold drop from Arctic came, with Temperature 850 hPa around -42 °C in the middle. Arctic region was usually colder than nowdays.
Records for European part of Russia
31.12.1978 Ust-Shchugor (Republique des Komis) -58.1 °C
19.02.2010 Hoseda-Hard -57.0 °C
??.01.1973 Ust-Shchugor -56.9 °C
09.02.1946 Petchora -56.0 °CRecord for European part of Russia since 2000
is much colder than record for Scandinavia: 19.02.2010 Hoseda-Hard -57.0 °C. However, station density in Russia is extreme low, especially north. Many frost hollow are not included, otherwise we can have -60 at European part of Russia few times (and -70 °C or -75 °C in East Siberia). Bellow -80 °C cound be ever in Siberian frost hollow in last 200-300 years, maybe ?.Scandinavia - Nordic countries
- station density in north Scandinavia is still quite low. And stations in frost hollow are missing a lot, otherwise wse can reach -60 °C (the same with Ural).
Norway - the place with record on the map is with wrong position. It was in river walley - Karasjohka (Karasjok) more north and more far from sea. The place close to Narvik is not so cold, it is too close to unfrozen sea.
Record in Karasjohka - Karasjok was 01.01.1886 Karasjohka -51.4 °C, 31.12.1885 Karasjohka -51.3 °C, again by New year eve. There was arctic blast (Something like 100-years cold ?) in January 1999, it was almost record low in Norway at 1999 - 28.01.1999 Karasjohka -51.2 °C, 0.2 missing to record. But record was during this event in north Finland - 28.01.1999 Kittila-Pokka -51.5 °C. It is official all-time record for Finland. Swalbard and Arctic region was much coldr in past than now. Record from Svalbard is 28.03.1917 Gronfjorden - Green base (island Spicbergen) -49.4 °C.
Another cold area in Norway is more south - Hendmark province
around Roros, Tynset around 61-62 deg. north, with mountais. There was already bellow -50 °C in 20th century. By yr.no recent records from this area - 04.02.2001 Drevsjo -43.9 °C, Tynset 08.01.2010 -42.4 °C, Tynset 16.02.1997 -41.6 °C, long time ago by geoclimat.org 13.01.1914 Roros -50.3 °C. Some years - lowest temperature for one year is from area Tynset-Roros (Hendmark area, 61-62 degrees north), but most of Years from Finmark (most nort province 68.5-71 degrees north, some parts are not so close to Atlantic).
There are records for Norway at Norwegian site yr.nohttps://www.yr.no/place/Norway/rekorder.html?visaar=1https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/rekorder.htmlNorway
01.01.1886 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -51.4 °C
31.12.1885 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -51.3 °C
28.01.1999 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -51.2 °C
04.02.1881 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -50.6 °C
13.01.1914 Roros (Hendmark 62.57 north) -50.3 °C
27.01.1999 Kautokeino (Finmark 69.00 north) -50.3 °C
27.01.1999 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -50.2 °C
11.01.1918 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -50.0 °C
02.02.1966 Karasjohka (Finmark 69.47 north) -50.0 °C
17.02.2011 Garggoluoppal (Finmark 69.3 north) -49.9 °Chttp://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsodres?lang=en&mode=0&state=France&ind=01047&ord=REV&ano=1999&mes=02&day=04&ndays=30https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/Finnmark/Karasjok/Karasjok/almanakk.html?dato=1999-01-28
Karasjohka Ogimet GSOD - unfortunately no data for this time.Finland
28.01.1999 Kittila-Pokka -51.5 °C (68.17 north)
06.01.1985 Salla Naruskajarvi -50.4 °C (67.17 north)
01.02.1966 Inari-Ivalo (Probably somewhere around Ivalo town some station) -48.6 °C (68.6 north)
28.02.1971 Salla Tuntsa -46.0 °C
Sodankyla 28.01.1999 -49.5 °C and February 1862 -51.3 °C (67.37 north ? Or another station around Sodankyla)http://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsodres?lang=en&mode=0&state=France&ind=02836&ord=REV&ano=1999&mes=02&day=04&ndays=30
Kittila Pokka is not in Ogimet GSOD.
Article Arctic blast january 1999 in Finland (in Finnish):https://blogi.foreca.fi/2019/01/suomen-pakkasennatyksesta-515-c-tasan-20-vuotta/
Climate and monthly records for Finland by Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_Finlandhttps://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suomen_ilmasto
Records for Finland, Finnish Meteorological Instititehttps://ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/lampotilaennatyksiaSweden
13.12.1941 Malgovik -53.0 °C (village 64.64 north by sv.wikipedia.org), or even maybe there was -53.3 °C by smhi.se.
02.02.1966 Vuoggatjalme -52.6 °C (village 66.575 north, 482 m above sea by sv.wikipedia.org)
near Finnish border 68.45 north - Karesuando -49 °C or even -54 °C, but it is dubious.
Another very cold days in Vuoggatjalme sv.wikipedia.org:
Vuoggatjalme 01.01.1951 -49.0 °C
Vuoggatjalme 04.03.1971 -45.8 °C
30.12.1978 Hemavan (65.81 north, near is mountain Norra Sytertoppen 1768 m, 65.89 north by sv.wikipedia.org) -48.9 °C - Arctic blast through Europe, fast changes in central Europe, lowest record for Europe in Russia.
27.01.1999 Karesuando -49.0 °C - 100-year Arctic blast in north Scandinavia.https://archive.is/xCOGhttp://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/det-svenska-koldrekordet-1.5114https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vuoggatj%C3%A5lmehttps://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemavanhttps://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malgovik
Monthly weather extremes records for Sweden:https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svenska_v%C3%A4derrekordhttp://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/svenska-temperaturrekord-1.5792
Monthly Records Temperature http://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/svenska-nederbordsrekord-1.6660
Monthly Records Precipitationhttp://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/svenska-vindrekord-1.31798
Monthly Records Windhttp://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/svenska-lufttrycksrekord-1.5096
Monthly Records Pressurehttps://www.smhi.se/klimat/klimatet-da-och-nu/manadens-vader-och-vatten-sverige/manadens-vader-i-sverige/juli-2018-langvarig-hetta-och-svara-skogsbrander-1.137248https://web.archive.org/web/20170211075751/http://www.smhi.se/klimat/manadens-vader-och-vatten/sverige/manadens-vader-i-sverige/januari-2017-nytt-vindrekord-for-sverige-1.112763All these places in Sweden are valeys inside mountains, in north Sweden - frost hollows.
Now days in Sweden - lowest temperatures are often in village in mountains - Nikkaluokta (Sweden) 02036. 67.85 north, near Swedish highest mountain and highest Scandinavian mountain behind Arctic circle - Kebnekaise 2097.5 m, 67.90 north. There is too probably darkest place (fewest ligh pollution in Europe union and Scandinavia), norhern lights are there. Second place with low temperatures in Sweden nowdays is in mountains Gielas (Sweden) 02110, 65.33 north (Arctic circle is 66.55 north).
there was temperatures bellow -42 °C in Norway in some recent years since 2000. It was 04.02.2001 Drevsjo Hedmark -43.9 °C, 01.02.2003 Karasjok (Ovlla-Pierguolbba), Finnmark -42.5 °C, 08.01.2010 Tynset Hedmark -42.4 °C, 17.02.2011 Coavddatmohkki Finnmark -42,5 °C, 20.01.2014 Karasjok (Markannjarga), Finnmark -41.9 °C, 07.02.2015 Karasjok (Markannjarga), Finnmark -42.0 °C, 07.02.2015 Karasjok (Markannjarga), Finnmark -42.0 °C DUBIOUS, 07.01.2016 Sihccajavri, Finnmark -42.8 °C, 04.01.2017 Kautokeino, Finnmark -42.4 °C
. Here are lowest temperatures from nordic countries for this day (It do not need to be coldest day in Sweden, Finland during this cold wave and there can be another cold wave in Scandinavia too.)04.02.2001 Drevsjo Hedmark -43.9 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Drevsjo (Norway) -43.5 °C, second coldest is Roros (Norway) -37.0 °C, Tynset is in valley, not so far from Drevsjo, wth Tmax +9.8 °C the same day, it can not be true for Tynset, by Ogimet - at the same day Tmin in Sweden and Finland - Vilhelmina (Sweden) -35.9 °C and Sodankyla (Finland) -30.4 °C)01.02.2003 Karasjok (Ovlla-Pierguolbba), Finnmark -42.5 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: ( Kautokeino (Norway) -41.8 °C, Nedre Soppero (Sweden) -41.0 °C, Kevo (Finland) -40.1 °C)08.01.2010 Tynset Hedmark -42.4 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Tynset Ii (Norway) -42.4 °C, Gielas (Sweden) -38.7 °C, Kuusamo Airport (Finland) -37.1 °C)17.02.2011 Coavddatmohkki Finnmark -42,5 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Cuovddatmohkki (Norway) -42.1 °C, Karesuando A (Sweden) -40.8 °C, Sodankyla (Finland) -39.6 °C)20.01.2014 Karasjok (Markannjarga), Finnmark -41.9 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Karasjok (Norway) -41.9 °C, Karesuando A (Sweden) -42.7 °C, Kevo (Finland) -39.8 °C)07.02.2015 Karasjok (Markannjarga), Finnmark -42.0 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (STRANGE - Akseloya (Norway) -20.9 °C, Brattmon (Sweden) -14.6 °C, Salla Naruska (Finland) -20.8 °C, coldest from whole Europe Surskoe (Russia) -29.0 °C, it is strange)07.01.2016 Sihccajavri, Finnmark -42.8 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Cuovddatmohkki (Norway) -42.5 °C, Naimakka (Sweden) -42.9 °C, Muonio (Finland) -41.2 °C)04.01.2017 Kautokeino, Finnmark -42.4 °C
, Ogimet This day records for Nordic countries: (Kautokeino (Norway) -42.4 °C, Muonio (Finland) -40.9 °C, Nikkaluokta (Sweden) -40.6 °C)Year 2018 is not at yet at yr.no
, from Ogimet extremes for Nordic countries (Folldal Fredheim 694 m 28.02.2018 -42.0 °C, 01.03.2018 -41.8 °C, Gielas (Sweden) 28.02.2018 -36.7 °C, 01.03.2018 Joutseno Konnunsuo (Finland) -32.0 °C).Austria
XX.02.1932 Grünloch Doline -52.6 °C, some specific frost hollow in Austria. (It was cold in february 1932 in Prague, but not so extreme: https://www.in-pocasi.cz/archiv/archiv-bar-graph.img.php?stanice=praha_klementinum&mesic=2&rok=1932
), strange that record is not from 1929.
25.12.2003 Grünloch Doline -47.1 °C (by de.wikipedia.org and viborc.com)
01.01.1905 Sonnblick -37.4 °C
11.02.1929 Zwettl -36.6 °Chttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gr%C3%BCnloch
Grünloch Doline 1270 m above sea, 47.82 north, south-west Austra, in Alps.
mame another place in Austria - Halltal -40 °C (no date, unofficial vallue). Insbruck has probably very long observation set - it should be there there -31.3 °C already during december 1788. Innsbruck is city between mountains, i valley.
record for Austria is -47.1 °C in Grünloch Doline - it is the same value like from Wikipedia 25.12.2003.
That is pitty - no data for 1929, 1940, 1942, 1856 from Grünloch Doline, it could be maybe even -60 °C or at least bellow -50 °C there.
Austria Ogimet Extremes 25.12.2003:http://ogimet.com/cgi-bin/gsynext?lang=en&state=Austria&rank=30&ano=2003&mes=12&day=25&hora=23&Send=send
1 Mariazell (Austria) -24.8 °C
2 Aigen Im Ennstal (Austria) -24.6 °C
3 Saint Michael Im Lungau (Austria) -24.1 °C
4 Bad Mitterndorf (Austria) -24.0 °C
5 Lunz (Austria) -22.0 °C
Highest temperature in Austra 25.12.2003 was Warth (Austria) +2.2 °C, by Ogimet SYNOP.Slovenia
- Lepa Komna (46.28 north), it could be there -49.1 °C by http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
and by en.wikipdia.org -49 °C too, date is January 2009 by en.wikipedia.org. It is not so far from Triglav.
25.01.2006 Lepa Komna -41.7 °C
02.03.2005 Lepa Komna -41.1 °Chttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepa_Komnahttps://web.archive.org/web/20160304001118/http://www.arso.gov.si/vreme/podnebje/slo_vremenski_rekordi.pdf
Slovenian weather records PDF
Slovenia - Babno-Polje frost hollow (Village Babno-Polje is 45.64 north in south Slovenia, 761 m above sea):
XX.02.1929 Babno-Polje -39.6 °C
01/03.2005 Babno-Polje -36.0 °C
10/02/2005 Babno-Polje -35.0 °C
02.03.2005 Babno-Polje -34.9 °C
15.02.1956 Babno-Polje -34.5 °C
16.02.1956 Babno-Polje -34.5 °C
13.01.1968 Babno-Polje -34.5 °Chttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babno_Polje